Back to the Walter Benjamin Research Syndicate Homepage
The Franz Neumann Project:
Beyond the Behemoth
Toward a Critical Psychopathology of Fascism
"Hardly any other ideological element is held in such profound contempt in our civilization as international law. Every generation has seen it break down as an instrument for organizing peace, and a theory that disposes of its universalist claims has the obvious advantage of appearing to be realistic. The fallacy should be equally obvious, however. To abandon universalism because of its failures is like rejecting civil rights because they help legitimize and veil class exploitation, or democracy because it conceals boss control, or Christianity because churches have corrupted Christian morals. Faced with a corrupt administration of justice, the reasonable person does not demand a return to the war of each against all, but fights for an honest system. Likewise, when we have shown that international law has been misused for imperialistic aims, our task has begun, not ended. We must fight against imperialism."
---Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944
Note on the Name Behemoth
"In the Jewish eschatology---of Babylonian origin---Behemoth and Leviathan designate two monsters, Behemoth ruling the land (the desert), Leviathan the sea, the first male, the second female. The land animals venerate Behemoth, the sea animals Leviathan, as their masters. Both are monsters of the Chaos. According to the apocalyptic writings, Behemoth and Leviathan will reappear shortly before the end of the world. They will establish a rule of terror---but will be destroyed by God. In other versions Behemoth and Leviathan will fight each other incessantly, and finally will destroy each other. The day of the righteous and just will then come. They will eat the meat of both monsters in a feast which announces the advent of a realm of God. Jewish eschatology, the Book of Job, the prophets, the apocryphal writings are full of references to this myth, which is often differently interpreted and often adapted to political circumstances. St. Augustine saw in the Behemoth the Satan.
It was Hobbes who made both the Leviathan and the Behemoth popular. His Leviathan is the analysis of a state, that is a political system of coercion in which vestiges of the rule of law and of individual rights are still preserved. His Behemoth, or the Long Parliament, however, discussing the English civil war of the seventeenth century, depicts a non-state, a chaos, a situation of lawlessness, disorder, and anarchy.
Since we believe National Socialism is---or tending to become---a non-state, a chaos, a rule of lawlessness and anarchy, which has 'swallowed' the rights and dignity of man, and is out to transform the world into a chaos by the supremacy of gigantic land masses, we find it apt to call the National Socialist system
----"Note on the Name Behemoth" from Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944, New York: Oxford University Press, 1942,1944.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
[Updated: February, 2006]
Franz Neumann [Short biographical sketch and bibliography]
- Franz Neumann, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944 [Table of Contents]
- C. Wright Mills, "The Nazi Behemoth" (Review of Neumann's Behemoth in Partisan Review, Sept./ Oct. 1942)
Links: On Fascism, The Cold War, N.A.T.O. & the Balkan Conflict:
Balkan History and Culture Links [in progress]
Balkan Archives [Updated: March 27, 2001]
N.A.T.O. & Neo-Fascism:"The Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty, West Germany & the Opportune Career of General Adolf Ernst Heusinger (1949 - 1964)" [notes for a forthcoming article]
CyberTimes Navigator [Excellent COLLECTION of Search Engines]
Franz Neumann [1900 - 1954 ]
Born into an assimilated German-Jewish family in Kattowitz (a city near Kraków which became Polish in 1921), Franz Neumann became involved in the socialist politics of soldiers' and workers' councils at the end of W.W. I, and was instrumental in organizing the Student Socialist Society in Frankfurt, where in 1918 he met Leo Lowenthal, future member of the Frankfurt School. At Breslau, Leipzig, Rostock and Frankfurt am Main, Neumann acquired a legal training which he put into practice during the Weimar Republic, working as a labor lawyer affiliated with the Social Democratic Party. He was arrested by the Nazis in April of 1933, and after a month of incarceration, escaped to England. At the London School of Economics he studied under Harold Laski and was granted a doctorate in Political Science. At Laski's recommendation Neumann joined the Frankfurt Institute of Social Research in 1936. His presence at the Institute enhanced the critical-theoretical analysis of fascism and German National Socialism. His most significant work, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism 1933-1944 [Oxford, 1942, 1944] remains a classic in the field. In 1941, Neumann was recruited to the U.S. Board of Economic Warfare by William J. Donovan, and in July of 1942 he became the chief economist of the Intelligence Division at the Office of the U.S. Chief of Staff. In 1943 Neumann was transferred to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), where he became deputy chief of the Central European Section [Rolf Wiggershaus, The Frankfurt School, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1994, 300-301]. In the summer of 1945, Neumann travelled to Nuremberg, where he was to become the first chief of research of the International War Crimes Tribunal. He died in 1954.
Recently Published Works:
- John Abromeit, "No Law, No Justice: The Critical Theory of Franz Neumann and Otto Kirchheimer" [Review of William Scheuerman's Between the Norm and the Exception: The Frankfurt School and the Rule of Law, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1994. pp. 330.]
- University of California Press publisher's review ofThe Rule of Law Under Siege: The Selected Essays of Franz L. Neumann & Otto Kirchheimer, ed. William E. Scheuerman, [Weimar and Now: German Cultural Criticism,9], Berkeley, University of California Press, 1996, 275 pp.
- Sociological Imagination and the Power Elite: Zur Aktualität von C. Wright Mills [German site from the University of Münster]
- Materialien zu The Power Elite [H.J. Krysmanski's site on C. Wright Mills from the University of Münster]
- Nuremberg/OSS research: [Articles by Michael Salter & Claire Hulme, Lancashire Law School, Univ. of Central Lancashire]
Nuremberg / Carl Schmitt:
http://www.philosophy.ru/library/pdf/201432.pdf or http://www.philosophy.ru/library/ctf.html
Franz Neumann Bibliography
[from Rolf Wiggershaus, The Frankfurt School, 1994, 749-750]
- 1929: Die politische und soziale Bedeutung der arbeitsgerichtlichen Rechtsprechung. Berlin: Laub.
- 1931: Tarifrecht auf der Grundlage der Rechtsprechung des Rechsarbeitsgerichts. Berlin: Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund.
- 1932: Koalitionsfreiheit und Reichsverfassung. Die Stellung der Gewerkschaften im Verfassungssystem. Berlin: Heymann.
- 1934: Trade Unionism, Democracy, Dictatorship. Preface by Harold J. Laski. London: Workers' Educational Trade Union Committee. [Published in the U.S. as European Trade Unionism and Politics, ed. Carl Raushenbuch. New York: League for Industrial Democracy, 1936.]
- 1935: (under pseudonym Leopold Franz) Die Gewerkschaften in der Demokratie und in der Diktatur. Probleme des Sozialismus, 13. Karlsbad: Graphia.
- 1942: Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism. London: Gollancz.
- 1944: Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933 - 1944. 2nd rev. edn, with new appendix. Toronto: Oxford University Press. [Table of Contents]
- 1957: The Democratic and the Authoritarian State: Essays in Political and Legal Theory, ed. Herbert Marcuse. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.
- 1978: Wirtschaft, Staat, Demokratie. Aufsätze 1930 - 1954, ed. Alfons Söllner. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
- 1980: Die Herrschaft des Gesetzes. Eine Untersuchung zum Verhältnis von politischer Theorie und Rechtssystem in der Konkurenzgesellschaft , trans. & ed. Alfons Söllner. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp. (German trans. of the 1936 doctoral dissertation, 'The Governance of the Rule of Law: an Investigation into the Relationship between the Political Theories, the Legal System, and the Social Background in the Competitive Society,' London School of Economics, 1936 (supervisor: Harold J. Laski).
- 1986: The Rule of Law: Political Theory and the Legal System in Modern Society, ed. Matthias Ruete. Leamington Spa: Berg.
- "Der Funktionswandel des Gesetzes im Recht der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft," Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, 6, no. 3 (1937), 542-96.
- "Types of Natural Law," Studies in Philosophy and Social Science, 8, no. 3 (1940), 338-61.
- "Intellektuelle und politische Freiheit," in Sociologica I. Aufsätze, Max Horkheimer zum sechzigsten Geburtstag gewidment. Frankfurter Beiträge zur Soziologie, 1. Frankfurt a.M.: Europäische Verlags-Anstalt, 1955.
- "Approaches to the Study of Political Power," Political Science Quarterly, 65 (1950), 161-80.
- "The Intelligentsia in Exile." In Paul Connerton (ed.), Critical Sociology: Selected Readings, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976, pp. 423-41. (From Neumann's chapter, "The Social Sciences," in W. Rex Crawford (ed.), The Cultural Migration: the European Scholar in America, Philadelphis: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953, pp. 4 - 25.)
- A few letters in Rainer Erd (ed.), Reform und Resignation. Gespräche über Franz L. Neumann. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 1984.
- C. Wright Mills, "The Nazi Behemoth" (Review of Neumann's Behemoth in Partisan Review, Sept./ Oct. 1942)
Links: On Fascism, The Cold War, N.A.T.O. & the Balkan Conflict
- Nazi Propaganda (1933 - 1945): Speeches and writings by Nazi leaders.
- The Nuremburg War Crimes Trials: [The Avalon Project of Yale Law School]
- Holocaust Educational Resource (The Nizkor Project)
- Nazi Doctors & Nazi Medicine [Racial Hygiene in the Third Reich]
- "Rational Fascism"an essay by Michael Parenti [Chapt.1 of Black Shirts & Reds ]
- Leon Trotsky: "Fascism: What it is and How to Fight it" (1930-1932)
- Leon Trotsky: "The Rise of Hitler and the Destruction of the German Left" (1930)
- Chip Berlet, "What is Fascism?" [NLG Civil Liberties Committee, Sept. 27, 1992]
- The ANTIFA INFO-BULLETIN
- The Anti-Fascist Web
- Presidential Candidate Pat Buchanan's Skeleton Closet
- Fascism Watch [from thirdworldtraveler.com]
- Henry A. Wallace, "The Danger of American Fascism," (1944) [truthout.org]
- Sheldon S. Wolin, "A Kind of Fascism is Replacing Our Democracy" (2003) [commondreams.org]
- The Washington Connection & Third World Fascism [excerpt from the book by Noam Chomsky & Edward Herman via thirdworldtraveler.com]
- Noam Chomsky, How the Nazis Won the War [excerpts from an interview via thirdworldtraveler.com]
- Edwin Black, "The IBM Link to Auschwitz," (Village Voice)
- "Why Wasn't Auschwitz Bombed?"
- Douglas Davis, "Document lists Ford among companies using slave labor," (Jewish Telegraph Agency)
- Fascism and its Legacy: Bibliography on National Socialism [University of Wisconsin's Center for German and European Studies]
- Roger Griffin, "Fascism and Revolution"
- Fascism in Europe [Internet Modern History Sourcebook]
- Fascism & National Socialism [Bibliography from the Pansophist Bibliothek of the Walter Benjamin Research Syndicate]
- Bibliography on Italian Fascism [San Francisco State University & San Francisco Public Library]
- Benito Mussolini, "What is Fascism?" (1932) [Modern History Sourcebook]
- Benito Mussolini, "The Doctrine of Fascism" (1932)
- Wilhelm Reich's Mass Psychology of Fascism [as scripted by the Surveillance Camera Players]
B. The Cold War:
- World War II: Office of Strategic Services (OSS)Research & Analysis [Includes information on Walter Langer, Franz Neumann, Herbert Marcuse and others from the Frankfurt School in the OSS]
- Kevin C. Ruffner, "CIA's Support to the Nazi War Criminal Investigations," [Studies in Intelligence]
- Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy [excellent site]
- Cold War Hot Links: Web Sources Relating to the Cold War
- Cold War International History Project: Document Library
- David T. Fautua, "The 'Long Pull' Army: NSC-68, the Korean War, and the Creation of the Cold War U.S. Army," [Journal of Military History, Vol. 61, no. 1 (January 1997)]
- Lloyd Gardner's Cold War Essay
- More on Atomic Diplomacy by Gar Alperovitz [From Chafe & Sitkoff ed. A History of Our Time.Oxford University Press, 1991]
- Cyphernomicon:[Surveillance, Privacy & Intelligence Agencies]
- The CIA at 50 [Democracy NOW! program with Amy Goodman, Sept. 18, 1997: discussion with Lou Wolf, Martin Lee, Phillip Agee, Diane Kuntz & Verne Lyon--on real audio at 14.4]
C. Official & Unofficial N.A.T.O. Sites:
- Official N.A.T.O. Documents
- N.A.T.O. Handbook: Chronology of Events
- The Rambouillet Accord
- The Road to N.A.T.O. Expansion
- N.A.T.O. Documents & Papers: "Know Thy Enemy!" [from www.abolishnato.com]
D. Anti-N.A.T.O. Sites:
- Vietnam Veterans Against the War Anti-Imperialist
- International Action Center [Founded by Ramsey Clark]
- N.A.T.O. & Anti-N.A.T.O. [a selection of links]
- REFORM N.A.T.O. [formerly Stormie's Abolish NATO]
- Links Against the Alliance [from reformnato.org]
- Alliance Links: Links to the governments that govern the alliance.
- "The Cost of Expanding NATO" (Democracy NOW!, March 11, 1998): Amy Goodman of Democracy Now interviews William Hartung, senior research fellow at the World Policy Institute and author of reports on hidden NATO costs, and Joel Johnson, representative of Aerospace Industries Association, an industry "trade" group: [in real audio at 14.4.]
E. Pro-N.A.T.O. News Outlets:
- http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eur/kosovo_hp.html [U.S. State Dept.]
- http://www.nato.int [N.A.T.O.'s site]
- http://www.natonews.com/ [N.A.T.O.'s news site]
- http://www.mod.uk/news/kosovo [British Foreign Office & Ministry of Defense]
- http://www.rferl.org/ [Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty]
F. Official & Unofficial Serbian sites:
- http://www.tanjug.co.yu/index.html [Tanjug News Agency]
- http://www.beta.co.yu/vestieng.asp [Beta News Agency-- in-depth articles require subscription. Site has free headlines and some top stories]
- http://www.serbia-info.com/news [Serbian Ministry of Information]
- http://www.borba.co.yu/daily.html [ Borba, an English daily published by the Yugoslav government]
- http://www.gov.yu/terrorism [Documentation of Albanian terrorism]
- http://www.srpska-mreza.com [Serbian Network]
- http://www.kosovo.com/22www.kosovo.com/ [Canadian-run site]
- http://news.beograd.com/index_e.html [American site sympathetic to Serbia]
- http://www.serbianna.com/[Serbianna, Current News from Belgrade]
G. Albanian News Sources from the Kosovar Albanian Perspective:
- http://www.albaniannews.com/ [Albanian Daily News]
- http://www.kosova.com [Ceased Updating on March 24th]
- http://www.alb-net.com/index.htm [Kosovo Crisis Centre]
- http://www.geocities.com/MotorCity/Track/4165/kla2.html [Kosovo Liberation Army site]
H. The Perspective from Montenegro:
- http://www.antenam.org [Radio Antena M] [Inactive Link: 9/3/00]
I. Alternative News / Views:
- Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections [Oil & Gas Pipeline News & Trends]
- Committee Against U.S. Intervention
- Common Dreams: News Center [The War in Kosovo]
- The Emperor's Clothes
- Flashpoints.net (Dennis Bernstein's Investigative news magazine)
- Independent Media Center of Philadelphia
- Press Now (Supports Free Press in Southeast Europe)
- SF Bay Area Independent Media Center
- U.S & World News Sources [from www.antiwar.com]
- World Socialist Web Site
J. Mainstream British & American Television Network Sites:
- cnn.com/SPECIALS/1998/10/kosovo [CNN news]
- abcnews.go.com/ [ABC News]
- cbs.com [CBS News]
- Kosovo Fact File [BBC 's site]
K. International Radio News [English & multi-lingual broadcasts via short-wave in real audio format on the world wide web]
- Free Speech Radio News [Good alternative news site run by striking journalists of Pacifica]
- All India Radio [live & taped broadcasts in real audio]
- BBC Online Homepage
- Channel Africa [taped broadcasts from Johannesburg]
- China Radio International [taped broadcasts from Beijing &Hong Kong]
- Deutsche Welle in English [auf deutsch]
- Krs' Radio World [English and Multi-lingual broadcasts from Europe, Africa, Asia, South & North America]
- Radio Austria International [live broadcasts in German & taped English broadcasts]
- Radio Australia [live stream audio]
- Radio France International [taped & updated broadcasts from Paris]
- Radio Korea International [taped broadcasts from Seoul]
- Radio Netherlands
- Radio Pakistan
- Radio Sweden [taped broadcasts from Stockholm]
- Radio Thailand
- San Francisco Liberation Radio [finest in low-power FM]
- Short-wave Stations [Overseas Radio Broadcasts in English and other languages: a huge selection]
- Voice of Russia [two taped broadcasts per day & on World Radio Network]
- World Band Radio - CH 5 A - Global News [Includes MSNBC News, ANA-Arab American Radio, Australian Broadcasting Corporation News, ABC News, CNN International News, Associated Press News Update, Radio Singapore International, CBC Radio 1, National Public Radio, Independent Radio News & others.]
- World Radio Network [National & International news and cultural programs from Australia, Austria, Belgium, the Caribbean, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, & South Africa]
L. News Sources for the Ongoing U.S. Aggression against Iraq/ Arab News Sources:
- Iraqi News Agency
- Iraq Action
- www.addameer.org (up-to-date reports on the Palestinian intifada of the West Bank)
M. Contacting the Executive Branch of the United States Government: Email Addresses:
- The President of the United States: George W. Bush
- The Vice-President of the United States: Dick Cheney
- First Lady Laura Bush
- Mrs. Lynne Cheney
- Secretary of State: Colin Powell
N. Contacting the Legislative Branch of the United States Government: Congressional Email Addresses:
National Geographic Map Machine (Online Atlas)
Tajikistan (Source: maps.com) Afghanistan (Source: maps.com)
Afghanistan (Source: Afghanistan Online)
Kazakhstan (Source: RFE/RL)
Turkmenistan (Source: maps.com)
(Source: Atlapedia Online)
Uzbekistan (Source: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty)
Click on the gif for the best coverage on Yugoslavia and the Balkans
CounterPunch's Coverage of the War Against Serbia
Balkan History & Culture Links
Albania-- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
Albanian History [albania-info.com]
Albanian History & Culture [www.lkwdpl.org]
Albania: Land of the Eagles [www.albania.co.uk]
firstname.lastname@example.org--"Home of Albanians on the Internet"
Albanian Population Since the 19th Century--maps [www.albanian.com]
Map of Ethnic Albania (1878) --The Four Vilayets [Frosina.org: Albanian Immigrant & Cultural Resource]
Bosnian History --From the Middle Ages to the Present [www.bosnet.org]
Information on History of Bosnia-Herzegovina [www.cco.caltech.edu]
Other Bosnia-Related Internet Resources[www.applicom.com]
About Bosnia [www.bosnia.org.uk]
Information Servers -- Bosnia and Herzegovina[inic.utexas.edu]
Bosnia-Herzegovina-- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
Bulgaria's History --History & Ethnography [www.omda.bg]
Bulgarian History--From the Origins of the Bulgarian Nation to the Third Bulgarian State
Bulgarian History [students.vassar.edu/~sitsonev]
History of Bulgaria-- From 681 to 1944 [Bulgaria.com]
Balcanica- Set of Maps [www.balcanica.org]
Bulgarian Association--at the Univ. of Illinois
Bulgaria-- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
Croatia - Vivodina Distrct -FEEFHS - Federation of East European Family History Societies - Map Room Index
Croatia: Culture & History-[www.slavophilia.net]
Croatian History [www.croatia.net]
Croatia-- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
History of Modern Greece -- Primary Documents [library.byu.edu]
Greece-- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
MAKEDONIKA--Online Journal on Macedonian History and Culture
Notes on Macedonian History [documents & articles in numerous languages]
Macedonian History--Texts & Maps
Macedonian History--Selections of Texts on the History of Ancient & Medieval Macedonia
Review Essay on Macedonian History--Elizabeth Carney (Clemson University)The Ancient History Bulletin 5.5-6 (1991) 179-189
Macedonian History: A Greek perspective [www.macedonianpark.com]
Macedonia on Old Maps [www.unet.com.mk]
Macedonia-- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
History Index--outstanding site managed by Isabela Corduneanu [email@example.com]
Chrissy's Romanian Studies Links--An Introduction to Romania- Useful Links on Culture and Language -
Romania-- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
Serbia & Montenegro
Serbia-Montenegro : Internet Resources [www.slavweb.com]
Serbian History--from Medieval period to the end of WWII
History of Serbia: Medieval Serbia 7th -14th Centuries & Modern Serbia. [www.serbia-info.com]
History of Serbian Culture --the Rastko Project [www.rastko.org.yu]
Kosovo in the History of the Serbian Church -Veselin Kesich, St Vladimir's Tbeological Quarterly 44:3-4 (2000) 279-308.
Serbian History--collection of essays
History of Montenegro [www.montenet.org]
Serbia & Montenegro -- C.I.A. World Factbook 2000
"The Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty, West Germany
& the Opportune Career of General Adolf Ernst Heusinger (1949 - 1964)"**
San Francisco Liberation Radio 93.7 FM/ Monday, 12. & 18. July, 1999 [6:00 - 8:00 pm]
The Bakchos Anti-Fascist News Hour
[**Note: These are notes for an article-in-progress on NATO & NEOFASCISM**]
[Note from Rick Rozoff at emperors-clothes.com: Richard Sanders is the coordinator of the Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade [COAT] and is organizing the "No to NATO: Festival of Creative NonViolence" in Ottawa, Canada on October 6th to protest the NATO PA meeting there from October 5-8,2001. The following compilation of reasons to oppose NATO is the most comprehensive and convincing I've ever seen, and I would strongly encourage all friends of peace and international justice to contact Richard and offer assistance. And please pass this on to friends and other contacts.]
In preparation for COAT's "No to NATO: Festival of Creative NonViolence" (on Oct. 6, in Ottawa), I've produced a tentative list of "REASONS TO OPPOSE NATO." Please feel free to suggest additional reasons or ways to improve the list. This is a draft. - Richard Sanders, Coordinator, Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade (COAT)
24 REASONS TO OPPOSE N.A.T.O.:
(1) NATO is a creature of the Cold War and should be abolished, not expanded.
(2) NATO's official military doctrine reserves for itself the right to use nuclear weapons despite the fact that in 1996 the World Court made such use, or threat, illegal. NATO's "first use" nuclear weapons policy means it is willing to use nuclear weapons even when none have been used against them. The use of nuclear weapons contravenes International Humanitarian Law because civilian deaths would be massive and indiscriminate. NATO's nuclear weapons also pose the risk of environmental catastrophe, including the global holocaust of "nuclear winter." NATO's nuclear weapons policy also contravenes the Nonproliferation Treaty (to which all NATO members are signatories) that requires all states to press quickly to abolish nuclear weapons. NATO member states (US, UK and France) now have more than 9,000 nuclear warheads in active service, about 60% of the world's nuclear arsenal. These three NATO states have committed some of their nuclear weapons to NATO for its use in war. NATO itself maintains between 60 and 200 nuclear weapons at airbases in Western Europe. NATO's nuclear weapons and the threat of their use are a means of coercion and intimidation, especially against states that do not possess these weapons.
(3) NATO's powerful core members (the U.S., the U.K., France, Germany, Holland, Belgium and Spain) have a long history of controlling vast empires. Former colonies of these NATO countries -- today's Third World -- still suffer from tragic economic inequalities resulting from hundreds of years of imperialism imposed by nations that are now members of NATO. Transnational corporations controlled by economic interests in NATO countries continue to dominate these former colonies under a neoliberal economic system now labeled "corporate globalization."
(4) According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, about 80% of the world's total military equipment was produced by NATO members in 1996. The following NATO members are among the world's top ten military producers: the U.S., the U.K., France, Germany, Italy and Canada. The U.S., U.K. and France alone contributed about 70% of world's total arms production for that year.
(5) After the disappearance of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, NATO became increasingly irrelevant and needed a reason for its continued existence. NATO therefore escalated its efforts to foment ethnic wars in the Balkans in order to create excuses for its own military interventions in the region. NATO's interventions -- so-called "humanitarian wars" -- were then sold to the public as a means of settling conflicts between ethnic groups. NATO's real purpose is to expand the colonial spheres of influence of its member states and their corporate allies.
(6) NATO waged a war of aggression against Yugoslavia that was illegal under its own Charter and various international laws.
(7) NATO forces used 1,200 warplanes and helicopters to fly 35,000 combat missions against Yugoslavia. It dropped 20,000 bombs and missiles containing 80,000 tons of explosives on that country. Contrary to international law, NATO targeted civilian infrastructure, including over 1,000 targets of no military significance, such as: schools, hospitals, farms, bridges, roads, railways, waterlines, media stations, historic and cultural monuments, museums, factories, oil refineries and petrochemical plants.
(8) NATO's illegal bombing campaign severely impacted the health of Yugoslavia's civilian population. Thousands of civilians were killed, at least 6,000 were injured and countless others, especially children, suffered severe psychological trauma.
(9) According to the UN Environmental Program, NATO's bombing campaign triggered an ecological catastrophe in Yugoslavia and the surrounding region.
(10) In its war against Yugoslavia, NATO used weapons that are prohibited by the Hague and Geneva Conventions and the Nuremburg Charter, such as depleted uranium missiles that are radioactive and highly toxic weapons with long-term, life-threatening health and environmental consequences, and anti-personnel cluster bombs designed to kill and maim (that contravene the "Ottawa Process on Landmines" because many "bomblets" do not explode during initial impact). NATO continues to stockpile these prohibited weapons for use against civilian populations in future wars.
(11) After its bombing of Yugoslavia, NATO refused to disarm the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) as required by United Nations resolution 1244. Instead, NATO converted the KLA into the Kosovo Protection Force supposedly to maintain peace and order in NATO-controlled Kosovo. Under the watchful eye of 40,000 NATO troops, the revamped KLA terrorists ethnically cleansed the area of 250,000 people who were not of Albanian heritage (as well as some ethnic Albanians loyal to Yugoslavia). During NATO's occupation, 1,300 citizens have been killed and another 1,300 have been reported missing. Kosovo's remaining minorities have no freedom of movement, live in ghettoes and face frequent terrorist attacks and property destruction.
(12) NATO appointed Agim Ceku, an alleged war criminal, as commander of the Kosovo Protection Force. Ceku, an Albanian Kosovar, led the Croatian army's "Operation Storm" that ethnically cleansed the Serbian population from their ancestral lands in Croatia. If the Hague were to pursue an indictment of Ceku, and other such terrorists, it would be a major embarrassment to their NATO bosses.
(13) As an occupying colonial power, NATO forces helped to enforce the cancellation of election results in Bosnia, shut down the offices and transmission towers of media stations that were critical of NATO's presence and seized the assets of political parties that refused to cooperate with them.
(14) The exploitative behavior rampant in military culture is exemplified by the actions of NATO troops based in the Balkans. For example, NATO troops fuel the demand for prostitution in both Bosnia and Kosovo. The women who service NATO troops live in deplorable conditions and are frequently held against their will by local captors. When evidence of UN or NATO involvement in this trade has surfaced, implicated officers have been discharged and sent home but no criminal proceedings have ever been initiated against them.
(15) NATO has been a prime source of destabilization in Macedonia by giving military assistance to Albanian terrorists there. The London Times (June 10, 2001) reported that NATO's appointee to the Kosovo Protection Force, Agim Ceku, sent 800 KLA troops to Macedonia to aid the nascent Albanian insurgency there. This June, NATO troops intervened to evacuate KLA fighters when Macedonian forces closed in on the rebels near Aracinovo. German media reports state that NATO's evacuation was ordered because 17 former U.S. military personnel -- hardened by years of Balkan fighting and working for a private U.S. mercenary group -- were among the KLA terrorists. NATO has also used diplomatic means to pressure the Macedonian government to succumb to Albanian demands.
(16) NATO's aggressive policy of expansion into Eastern Europe severely threatens international stability. With NATO's annexation of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland now complete, Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia have declared an interest in joining the NATO juggernaut. NATO has also set its sights on penetrating even further into former Soviet spheres of influence by trying to encompass Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and the Ukraine. NATO's intention to press beyond the former borders of the Soviet Union is dangerously confrontational and risks provoking war with Russia.
(17) NATO's expansion into Central and Eastern Europe is a means of integrating the military forces within those countries under NATO (and largely U.S.) control As military units within NATO, the armed forces of new NATO member states must submit to demands for standardization of military training, weapons and other military equipment. Requirements that new members standardize their military equipment to NATO's exacting specifications is a tremendous boon to U.S. and European military industries that profit greatly from these expanded export markets.
(18) New NATO member states may also lose sovereignty over other important aspects of their armed forces, such as the command, control, communications and intelligence functions, which also risk being subsumed under the auspices of NATO standardization.
(19) The reasons for NATO's expansion eastward are largely economic. For instance, NATO's military access and control over Eastern Europe helps Western European corporations to secure strategic energy resources such as oil from the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. The U.S. and Western European corporations will greatly benefit from NATO's control of the oil corridor through the Caucasus mountains. NATO wants its troops to patrol this pipeline and to dominate the Armenian/Russian route to the Caspian Sea. The Caucasus also link the Adriatic-Ceyhan-Baku pipeline with oil-rich countries even farther east, in the former Soviet Central Asia republics of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Billions of dollars in oil may someday flow through these corridors to Western Europe for the benefit of Western-based oil companies.
(20) NATO's growth is not only a provocation to Russia, it also threatens the security of China and other Asian states that may respond in kind by increasing their military spending, thus diverting resources from the essential needs of their citizens. NATO's expansion may eventually provoke an anti-NATO alliance in Asia, further destabilizing peace and leading to possible future wars.
(21) As part of the "NATO Defence Capabilities Initiative," NATO member states have committed themselves to increase their military abilities for "power projection, mobility and increased interoperability." This will require significant additional military expenditures. European NATO countries have already increased their expenditures for military equipment by 11% in real terms since 1995. Meanwhile, military budgets in the U.S. and Canada have also increased over the past two years. The military budgets of NATO countries amounted to about 60% of the world's total military spending (US$798 billion) for the year 2000. Rather than focusing on such genuinely humanitarian priorities as providing food, housing, health care, education, environmental protection and public transportation for their populations and the rest of the world, NATO is intent on increasing their military budgets for future interventions even farther afield.
(22) The testing and training conducted by NATO to prepare for war, also has numerous negative impacts on people and the environment. NATO's war preparations include military exercises, the training of pilots and the testing of weapons and warplanes. For instance, low level flight training areas and bombing ranges in Nitassinan threaten the traditional lifestyle of many in the Innu Nation. Their unceded territory in Quebec and Labrador is being turned into a military wasteland by NATO test flights. NATO nations also carry out dangerous bombing practices on Vieques Island, off Puerto Rico.
(23) In the late 1940s-early 1950s, at the bidding of the CIA, NATO helped to set up secret paramilitary, anti-communist cells in at least 16 European states. Originally called Operation "Stay Behind," this network of guerrilla armies was created to fight behind the lines in case of a Soviet invasion. It was codified under the umbrella of the Clandestine Co-ordinating Committee of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (which became NATO). These clandestine armies were condemned by the European Union in a resolution (Dec. 22, 1990) that blamed the CIA and NATO for their 40 year role in overseeing this covert operation. Widely known by the code name for the Italian campaign (i.e., "Operation Gladio") these organizations, which the EU feared may still have been operating in 1990, were accused of illegal interference in political affairs, conducting terrorist attacks, jeopardizing democratic structures and other serious crimes.
(24) Key NATO representatives have interfered with internal electoral/political developments in Europe. Although recent elections in Albania were fraught with irregularities and fraud (ballot box stuffing, ghost voters, selective disenfranchisement) NATO General Secretary George Robertson pronounced the election fair and legitimate. Earlier this year, another NATO spokesperson openly threatened that if the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (the party of former premier Vladimir Meciar) entered a coalition government, Slovakia would not be welcomed into NATO or allowed early European Union membership.
FREE SAMPLE COPY OF OUR MAGAZINE EXPOSING NATO'S CRIMES
The next issue of the Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade's quarterly magazine, Press for Conversion!, will elaborate on the above list of reasons to oppose NATO.
We'll gladly mail a free sample copy of that issue upon request. This offer is applicable to folks in Canada who haven't previously received a free issue. If you're interested, email us your street address in Canada before September 15.
(If you're outside Canada, send US$5 to COAT at the address below, or buy an annual subscription for US$17. Folks in Canada can also buy a copy for Cdn$5, or subscribe for Cdn$20.)
Coordinator, Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade (COAT)
A national peace network supported by individuals and organizations across Canada
541 McLeod St., Ottawa Ontario K1R 5R2 Canada
Tel.: 613-231-3076 Fax: 613-231-2614
Web site: http://www.ncf.ca/coat